Para Ser Piloto

Formação Aeronáutica e Segurança de Voo

Como é o curso do 787

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O texto abaixo me foi enviado por um grande amigo, o Salvatore (muito obrigado, Salva!), que trabalha como mecânico de aeronaves numa grande companhia americana, e provavelmente é verídico. É um texto longo e está em inglês, mas é muitíssimo interessante: ele trata dos detalhes técnicos do novo Boeing 787 – que são muitos, e bastante inusitados. Vale a pena ler, e para quem não domina completamente o idioma de Shakespeare, sugiro uma ajudinha do Google Tradutor. Eu o estou traduzindo “artesanalmente”, e quando ficar pronto eu incluirei uma versão traduzida aqui – mas isso deve demorar um pouco, dado o tamanho do texto.  Bem, mas chega de enrolação, e vamos ao relato do curso do 787:

I just completed the first pilot training class on the 787 at United
Airlines, an airplane which is destined to replace the 767 and live
for many years after I retire. ****

Here’s what I’ve learned in 787 training so far. By the way, last
night we passed our MV (maneuvers validation) check ride, with
emergency after emergency, and the FAA observing. Tonight was our LOE
(line-oriented evaluation) [LOFT], again with FAA – this time 2 FAA
observers. It’s 0200 and I just got back to the hotel and poured a
well-earned glass of wine to celebrate. I now have a type rating in
the 787. Phew. I’m pretty confident this will be the last one for me.
****

I’ve summarized some of the major differences and unique features of
the 787 versus more traditional “old school” airplanes like the 777
(not kidding) – from the pilot’s viewpoint. Our “Differences” course
takes 11 days to gain an FAA type rating, which is a “common” type
rating with the 777. The course has been like drinking from a fire
hose, but has finally come together. Some of our pilots attended
Boeing’s 5-day differences course, and deemed it unacceptable. The FAA
approved the Boeing 5-day course, but our guys decided it lacked too
much information. FAA is observing our check rides now, and taking our
course as well, to certify the training. We’re just the guinea pigs.
****

A computer nerd would describe the 787 as 17 computer servers packaged
in a Kevlar frame. The central brains is the Common Core System (CCS).
Two Common Computing Resources (CCRs) coordinate the communications of
all the computer systems, isolating faults and covering failed systems
with working systems. When battery power is first applied to the
airplane in the morning, it takes about 50 seconds for the L CCR to
boot up. After this, a few displays light up and you can start the
APU. If there is a major loss of cockpit displays, this may require a
CCR reboot, which would take about a minute. Here are a few of the
major features and differences from the 777. ****

Electrics – Though a smaller plane, the 787 has 4 times the electric
generating power of the 777 – 1.4 gigawatts. Generators produce 235
VAC for the big power users. Other systems use the traditional 115 VAC
and 28 VDC. There are 17 scattered Remote Power Distribution Units
which power about 900 loads throughout the plane. The big power
distribution system is in the aft belly, along with a Power
Electronics Cooling System (PECS). This is a liquid cooling system for
the large motor power distribution system. There’s also an Integrated
Cooling System (ICS), which provides refrigerated air for the galley
carts and cabin air, and a Miscellaneous Equipment Cooling System for
Inflight Entertainment Equipment. ****

If 3 of the 4 engine generators fail, the APU starts itself. The APU
drives two generators, and can be operated up to the airplane’s max
altitude of 43,000 feet. If you lose all 4 engine generators, the RAT
(ram air turbine) drops out (like a windmill), powering essential
buses. (It also provides hydraulic power to flight controls if
needed). If you lose all 4 engine generators and the two APU
generators (a really bad day), you are down to Standby Power. The RAT
will drop out and provide power, but even if it fails, you still have
the autopilot and captain’s flight director and instruments, FMC, 2
IRSs, VHF radios, etc. If you’re down to batteries only, with no RAT,
you’d better get it on the ground, as battery time is limited. Brakes
and antiskid are electric – 28V – so you don’t lose brakes or antiskid
even when you’re down to just standby power. ****

Normal flight controls are hydraulic with a couple exceptions. Engine
driven and electric hydraulic pumps operate at 5000 psi (versus normal
3000 psi) to allow for smaller tubing sizes and actuators, thus saving
weight. If you lose all 3 hydraulic systems (another bad day), you
still have two spoiler panels on each wing which are electrically
powered all the time, as is the stabilizer trim. You can still fly the
airplane (no flaps, though). If you’re having an even worse day and
you lose all hydraulics and all generators, flight control power is
still coming from separate Permanent Magnet Generators (PMGs) which
produce power even if both engines quit and are windmilling. If the
PMGs fail, too, your flight controls will be powered by the 28 V
standby bus. ****

If you lose all 3 pitot/static systems or air data computers, the
airplane reverts to angle of attack speed (converts AOA to IAS), and
this is displayed on the normal PFDs (primary flight displays)
airspeed indicator tapes. GPS altitude is substituted for air data
altitude and displayed on the PFD altimeter tapes. Very convenient.

If you lose both Attitude and Heading Reference Units (AHRUs), it
reverts to the standby instrument built-in attitude & heading gyro,
but displays this on both pilot’s PFDs for convenience. If you lose
both Inertial Reference Units, it will substitute GPS position, and
nothing is lost. If someone turns one or both IRSs off in flight (I
hate it when they do that), you can realign them – as long as one of
the GPSs is working! ****

There is no pneumatic system. The only engine bleed is used for that
engine’s anti-ice. Wing anti-ice is electric. Each of two air
conditioning packs control two CACs, which are electric cabin air
compressors. The four CACs share two air inlets on the belly. Each
pack controller controls two CACs, but if a pack controller fails, the
remaining pack controller takes over control of all 4 CACs. ****

There are no circuit breakers in the cockpit. To check on them, or if
you get a message that one has opened (more likely), you select the
CBIC (circuit breaker indication and control) display on one of the
MFDs (multi function displays). There you can reset the virtual C/B if
it is an “electronic” circuit breaker. You can’t reset a popped
“thermal” circuit breaker. ****

If you have an APU fire on the ground or inflight, the fire
extinguishing bottle is automatically discharged. If there is a cargo
fire, the first two of seven bottles will automatically discharge
also. There’s a Nitrogen Generation System which provides automatic
full-time flammability protection by displacing fuel vapors in the
fuel tanks with nitrogen. ****

Like the 767 and 777, the 787 also has full CPDLC capability
(controller-to-pilot datalink communications). In addition, its full
FANS capability includes ADS-B in & out. The controller can uplink
speed, heading, and altitude changes to the airplane. These show up on
a second line right under the speed, heading and altitude displays on
the mode control panel. If you pilot wants to use them, he can press a
XFR button next to each window. The controller can even uplink a
conditional clearance, like – After passing point XYZ, climb to FL390.
If you accept this, it will do it automatically. ****

Fuel system – like the 777, the 787 has a fuel dump system which
automatically dumps down to your maximum landing weight, if that is
what you want. In addition, it has a Fuel Balance switch which
automatically balances your L & R main tanks for you. No more opening
crossfeed valves and turning off fuel pumps in flight. No more
forgetting to turn them back on, either. ****

Flight Controls – An “Autodrag” function operates when the airplane is
high on approach and landing flaps have been selected. It extends the
ailerons and two most outboard spoilers, while maintaining airspeed,
to assist in glidepath capture from above, if you are high on the
glideslope. The feature removes itself below 500 feet. Cruise flaps is
an automated function when level at cruise. It symmetrically moves the
flaps, ailerons, flaperons, and spoilers based on weight, airspeed and
altitude to optimize cruise performance by varying the wing camber,
thus reducing drag. Gust suppression – Vertical gust suppression
enhances ride quality when in vertical gusts and turbulence. It uses
symmetric deflection of flaperons and elevators to smooth the bumps.
This should result in fewer whitecaps in passengers’ coffee and
cocktails. Lateral gust suppression improves the ride when on approach
by making yaw commands in response to lateral gusts and turbulence.
****

Instrument Approaches – The airplane is actually approved for autoland
based not only on ILS but on GLS approaches – GPS with Ground based
augmentation system, which corrects the GPS signals. GLS minimums are
the same as CAT I ILS – 200′ and 1/2 mile visibility. Our airline is
not yet approved for GLS autolandings, though we will be doing GLS
approaches. Special Cat I & II HUD approaches – These allow lower than
normal minimums when the Heads Up Devices are used at certain approved
airports (HUDs). The HUDs include runway centerline guidance which
helps you stay on the centerline on takeoff when visibility is greatly
reduced. It uses either ILS or GLS for this. ****

Cabin – Pressurization differential pressure maximum is 9.4 psid, so
the cabin altitude is only 6000 feet when at the max cruising altitude
of 43,000 feet. There is a cockpit humidifier switch, and cabin air
humidification is fully automatic. Cabin windows are larger than other
airplanes, and window shading is electronic. The passenger can select
5 levels of shading, from clear to black. The flight attendants can
control the cabin lighting temperature – mood lighting – to aid in
dealing with changing time zones (evening light after dinner, morning
light to wake up, etc.). ****

Much of the cockpit seems like it was designed by Apple. The Control
Display Units (CDUs) are virtual, so you can move them from one MFD to
another. In fact, you can configure the displays in 48 different ways,
I think, though we have found a few favorites we will use to keep it
simple. To move the cursor from one MFD to another, you can either use
a button, or you can “flick” your finger across the trackpad (Cursor
Control Device) to fling the cursor from one screen to the next – much
like an iPad. ****

I’m going home this morning, and will return for a 777 simulator ride
before I go back to work. They want to make sure we’ve still got the
old-fashioned legacy airplane in our brain before we fly the 777
again, even though it shares a “common type rating”. We won’t get the
first 787 until October, and begin operations in November or December.
At that time I’ll return for at least 4 days refresher training before
beginning IOE – initial operating experience in the airplane – with
passengers. ****

What a ride. It may be “fuel efficient”, but I’m glad someone else is
paying for the gas. ****

P.S. If you wish to share this with someone else, be my guest. I think
the 787 will be a great plane, but there could be some surprises with
this level of innovation. Time will tell. **

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4 thoughts on “Como é o curso do 787

  1. Muito obrigado Google! Eu entendi mais o texto original com o meu “imbromation” do que com o Google Translator.
    Esse avião vai ser demais hein. Sem duvida uma nova era de aviões esta entrando no mercado (Airbus A350 XBW) com muito mais tecnologia para mante-los voando em caso de algum defeito no ar. Claro que vai depender do piloto também manter o “garotinho” no ar né.

  2. “Airbus tem muita tecnologia embarcada”….
    E agora, o que os fanáticos vão dizer?

  3. Putzz, sistema de geração de hidrogenio, ADS-B interligado com o controlador, que ja manda pro AP fazer a correção sozinho, auto spoiler, humidificador de cabine, pressurização nao mais feita pelo ar sangrado do motor e cabine “feita” pela Apple, 787 deve ser mara hein…

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